Water and aqueous reagents are essential in any biological process or system. But apart from a few special low vapor-pressure cases, liquids have not been accessible to any techniquerequiring UHV conditions. EnviroESCA opens up this exciting field of applications.
|Gaseous and Liquid Environments|
The interaction of gases and liquids with surfaces plays a key role in many different fields ranging from biological and catalytic systems to construction materials. EnviroESCA offers the possibility of investigating surfaces in contact with gases and liquids, such as salt water, acidic rain, wastewater, or gaseous atmospheres with high humidity.
|Astrochemistry and Astrobiology|
The interaction of organic molecules with water and ice surfaces in atmospheres that can be found on distant planets is a vital field of research. EnviroESCA can create sample environments that realistically simulate conditions in planetary atmospheres such as on Mars, where the pressure ranges from 10-6 mbar to 7 mbar.
With the capability of operating in the near ambient pressure regime EnviroESCA offers an entirely new opportunity to investigate biological materials and processes, making ESCA more versatile than ever before.
|Archaeology and Archaeometry|
The analysis of priceless ancient artifacts with surface science techniques like XPS and NAP-XPS allows to deliver results about the surface composition of metallic and non-metallic specimens without damaging or destroying them. EnviroESCA offers the possibility to load large and uneven samples and to perform the analysis in environmental conditions which will preserve the delicate relics.
Cosmetics in contact with skin and hair interact on the molecular level. Therefore tuning and optimization of the interface plays a key role for the character of the interaction between the ingredients and the tissue.
|Soils and Minerals|
XPS analysis is widely used in soil and Mineral research for characterizing surface organic films, mineral decomposition and redox transformations. Until now these studies were limited to UHV compatible samples. EnviroESCA overcomes this constraint and offers new exciting possibilities.
The performance of highly sophisticated fabrics is governed by the interaction of the interface with the surrounding atmosphere. By studying the surface properties of the fibers in wet air, deeper insights into relevant processes under more realistic conditions can be gained.
|Energy Material and Devices|
Batteries and fuel cells are devices that use chemical reactions to store and convert energy. Fuel cells for instance consume fuel and oxidants during operation so that their investigation is not possible in traditional XPS spectrometers. With EnviroESCA the fundamental steps in such devices can be investigated in operando.
|Polymers and Plastics|
Polymers and plastics are used in many fields such as food grade packaging and medical technology. Their composition is especially important when the polymers get in direct contact with food or humans. With EnviroESCA the concentration of hazardous contaminations can be quantified regardless of their vacuum compatibility.
|Medical and Biomaterials|
Medical implants and Biomaterials are devices or tissues that are placed inside or on the surface of the body. It is important to be able to analyze their surfaces to achieve optimized interactions with the surrounding tissue also in drug delivery applications.
The function and efficiency of a catalyst is principally determined by its surface properties. XPS and NAP-XPS are proven and powerful tools for investigating catalytic behaviour in studies ranging from model systems to real world materials.
|Coatings and Thin Films|
Coatings and platings are widely used in optics manufacturing and metal refinement as they optimize the surface properties of materials to make them harder, stronger and more durable. The coatings are thin films which interact with the substrate on one side and the gaseous or liquid Environment on the other.
Nanomaterials have attracted a lot of attention from Research and industry in the past decades. Questions about the influence of the surrounding atmosphere on the chemical composition and potential core-shell structure are ideally addressed by EnviroESCA.
The reliability of mechanical or electrical connections depends strongly on their chemical composition and degree of corrosion. EnviroESCA facilitates the investigation of the metal surface in interaction with its surrounding gas or liquid phase environment to gain a detailed understanding of processes governing corrosion.
Metallic parts can rapidly be analyzed without pre-cleaning or surface preparation. With the unrivaled short sample loading time and the robotic AutoLoader they can be taken directly from the production line for quality control.
|Microelectronics and Semiconductors|
The quality of conductive platings on printed circuit boards is crucial for the operation of any microelectronicdevice. With the AutoLoader this high performance tool is ideally suited for unattended and automated analysis of microelectronic devices.
Pharmaceutical drugs interact with different atmospheres on their way from the production line to the patient. Their surfaces interact for example with the press were they are brought into their shape over to the sales packaging where they are stored and finaly to the contact with the hand of the patient and the acidic atmosphere of the body. EnviroESCA helps to understand these interactions on the molecular level of their surfaces and to optimize production or storage processes.
The outer surfaces of organic and industrial produced food are in contact with the atmosphere that sourrounds them on the field or in the production hall, in the fridge or in its sales packaging. Therefore the investigation of the interaction between different atmospheres and the food is essential to understand what are the parameters for optimizing the packaging or pretreatment of eatables to guarantee their freshness and to keep them fresh for a longer time.
|Pulp, Paper & Printing|
Paper is one of the oldest and most often used materials in our daily life, e.g., in books, magazines, notepads, newspaper, money, packaging, arts, handkerchiefs, paper towels, filter paper or wallpaper. For printing the individual chemical composition and surface properties of a paper are very important factors as they can alter significantly the quality of the final print as result of adhesion and durability of the ink.