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 Liquid Water

 EnviroESCA sample plate with watch glass filled with liquid water

Watch glas filled with liquid water positioned on an EnviroESCA sample plate. A viton O-ring is used to prevent the watch glass from tumbling. The sample was analysed without any pretreatment, cleaning procedure, or electrical contacting.

EnviroESCA with watch glass filled with liquid water

The water filled watch glas underneath the analyzer nozzle at a working distance of 0.3mm. The reflection of the analyzer nozzle is clearly visible on the water surface.
The image was recorded with one of the three digital microscopes at the EnviroESCAs Analysis Module. The metal pipe coming from the lower left corner allows for dosing of gases directly onto the analyzed region of the sample.
   
 XPS spectrum of liquid water recorded with EnviroESCA

The figure shows the difference in the O1s signal at different nozzle liquid surface distances. At first (green spectrum) the water surface is out of focus, meaning all analysed electrons are generated in the water vapor in front of the nozzle. With decreasing distance between nozzle and surface the intensity of the liquid part of the O1s peak increases.

 XPS spectrum of liquid water recorded with EnviroESCA
When taking spectra at higher resolution two parts of the O1s peak can be clearly separated. The one at lower binding energy corresponds to electrons emitted from oxygen in the liquid water whereas the narrower part at higher binding energies correspond to oxygen in the water vapor phase.    



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 Sample of the Week 40/2016

EnviroESCA sample plate with watch glass filled with liquid water



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